emailcumipaz@emapaz.com

Deserts, mountains, lakes and glaciers are part of the Chilean geography, stretching from north to south. High Andean peaks and ocean depths that extend from the Atacama Desert, the most arid in the world, to the Antarctica in the extreme south.

Chile is one of the longest and narrowest nations on the planet, bordering Peru in the north, Bolivia and Argentina in the East, the Antarctic in the South and the Pacific Ocean in the west, along it 4,300 km coastline. Its terrain is rugged and mountainous: no more than 20% of the countries surface is flat.

Chile spans three continents. It has its primary territory on the South American continent, from 17°30′ S in the north to 56º30′ S, on the southern Diego Ramírez Islands. Its westernmost border is Easter Island in Oceania, at 27º S and 109º W, and it has territory in Antarctica between the 53° W and 90° W meridians.

  History Summary   [1]

Chile’s history is generally divided into twelve periods ranging from the beginning of human settlement in the territory of modern Chile to today.

The pre-Hispanic period corresponds to the history of the different Amerindian ethnic groups in the territory, extending from 14800 BC until the arrival of the Spanish conquerors. The European explorations in the Americas began in 1492. In 1520, Fernando de Magallanes and his expedition were the first Europeans to arrive in Chile from the south through the strait that now bears his name, in 1536 Diego de Almagro commanded an expedition to the Aconcagua Valley and the north of present Chile.

The third period corresponds to the Spanish conquest, which extended from 1536 to 1598 with the Arauco War, during which the Spaniards were close to being exterminated by the Mapuche Indians. The colonial period lasted a little over two centuries, between 1598 and 1808, a period marked by the establishment of colonial institutions.

The so-called period of Independence ran from the deposition of the Spanish governor in 1810 until the exile of Liberator Bernardo O’Higgins in 1823. It was marked by various battles against the royalists, who managed to briefly reconquer the country, and because of problems in the government. Once the Independence of the country was accomplished, a period of organization of the Chilean state followed, between 1823 and 1830, with the events of three rules and two constitutions.

The period of the Conservative Republic took place between 1831 and 1861. It was marked by the forced entry of the 1833 Constitution established by Diego Portales, with a strong centralized government. Despite some attempts at subversion, the institutional stability was maintained and the country experienced economic prosperity.

The eighth period, known as the Liberal Republic, which lasted from 1861 to 1891, was characterized by greater political stability and allowed an extension of the territory to the south and the north.

Since the Civil War of 1891, the Parliamentary Republic began, which lasted until the enactment of the 1925 Constitution. The National Congress dominated politics and the president became a figure with no authority. The country was urbanized and the first syndicates were created.

The Presidential Republic marked a change in the institutions, with the 1925 Constitution, until the coup of 1973. Three parties dominated politics: the Radicals, Christian Democrats and Socialists. Numerous public companies were created in this period. Its end was marked by the triumph of the left and socialist ideas.

After the coup of September 11, 1973, that overthrew the democratically elected president Salvador Allende, a dictatorial military regime came to power with a government board lead by General Augusto Pinochet. Dozens of thousands of opponents were arrested, tortured or murdered, even abroad, while others were expelled or condemned to exile. With the help of Chicago Boys, Pinochet carried out a liberal economic policy, and a new Constitution was adopted in 1980.

Finally, the transition towards democracy came into effect since 1990, assuming the presidency to Patricio Aylwin. In 2006, Michelle Bachelet became the first woman to occupy the presidency of the country. In 2010 Sebastian Piñera became the first president from the right democratically elected since 1958. Later, Michelle Bachelet came back to the presidency in 2014.

  1.2. Political-administrative and political system division   [2]

The Chilean political system is the republican democracy.

Despite the existence of a classic division of powers, political scientists agree that the 1980 Constitution defines other powers or functions, such as the Constitutional Court, the Central Bank, the National Security Council and others.

The form of government is a Republic presidential, which basically means that the President of the Republic is both Head of State and Head of Government. Consequently, this authority has been concentrated in ample faculties, among which are: exclusive initiative in various areas of law, the imposition of states of constitutional exception, the ability to issue Decrees with the Force of Law (previous delegator law of Powers Act by Congress), the convening of referendums and, naturally, the naming of the ministers of State, and an important body of officials that collaborate with them in the administration of the State, among others.

 Economic Profile   [3]

The Chilean economy is stable and vigorous. The market encourages freedom of competition and trade, while the authorities care and promote fiscal discipline. The growth in the last decade reaches an average of close to 5% annually.

This sustained growth has allowed the country to sign Free Trade Treaties with markets that represent almost two thirds of the world population.

This vast network of treaties has led to real international cooperation and international chains. Thus, it displays a multitude of attractive products and services because of their quality, variety and value.

Leading traditional industries, such as agriculture, wine, fishing or mining, faced with a new focus point, more innovative and sustainable; and the growth of areas in which the talent of Chileans reveals furthermore, such as architecture, engineering, environment, the information and communications technology and creative industries in general.

A varied offer that responds to the continued, clear and consistent creation of an open economy, solid and at the same time flexible, based on a transparent and smooth institutional environment. Honesty and stability are the engine of a dynamic and consistent development.

The best partners of the growth in the last decade are the fiscal responsibility and the social programs that have significantly reduced poverty, multiplying by four the number of youth that enter into universities.

With the purpose of success benefiting all inhabitants of the country, reforms are implemented of solved social emphasis. They are initiatives in the different areas of socioeconomic activity. Some of the most relevant are Plan AUGE (Universal Access with Explicit Guarantees), public health system which guarantees more and better coverage to all Chileans, and 6 months postnatal for all workers in the country.

The economy also shows advances in the construction of social housing and wide range programs to access education. Poverty rates have declined in a significant way in 15 years, from 38% in 1990 to 14.4% in 2011. Inequality still exists in income distribution, a task that unites all in search for permanent solutions of inequality.

A determined policy if saving reserves gives support to the stability of the economy and can cope with periods of crisis affecting the world’s economy.

  Official Currency  

The Chilean currency is the peso. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 pesos; and 1.000, 5.000, 10.000 and 20.000 peso bills. One US dollar is valued at about $640 pesos and one Euro around $710 pesos.

 Official Language   [4]

Chile’s official language is Spanish. Saying that, there is an idiomatic variation that Chileans use to create new words and meanings. In Chile, Mapudungun is also spoken, language spoken by the Mapuches, Aymara, in the Northern Andean region of the country and Rapanui, in Easter Island.

 Religion   [5]

According to the latest census in 2002, 7,853,478 Chileans 15 years and over declared themselves Catholic, equivalent to 69.96% of the total population. 15.14% were declared evangelists, 1.06% as Jehovah Witnesses, .92% as Mormons and .13% as Jews. 8.3% of the country declared themselves atheists or agnostic, while 4.39% confirmed they believed in another religion.

  Climate  [6][7]

Due to its extensive latitude, Chile counts with a series of climate changes. This is because of Chile’s geographical position regarding high pressure zones, with the presence of polar front and the influence of the sea, in other words, the Chilean climate is influenced by the factors of latitude, altitude and the relief of the country.

The central zone of Chile has a Mediterranean climate. In this part of the territory, weather conditions occur more moderate, combining a significant amount of rainfall with a broader distribution of the same. Rainfall tends to be concentrated mainly in the winter months. During the summer the climate is dry and warm. The seasons are different in every city in this area, with the cold season from May to September and the warmest from October to April. In the coastal area, the changes are softer. In the inner cities as Santiago, Los Andes or Rancagua, extreme temperatures vary in the winter, with an average of 8° C, while in summer it is 20° C, although it has peaks over 32° C.

The meteorological conditions expected for the days of the Summit are:

Maximum Temperature: 27°

Minimum Temperature: 8°

Average Temperature 24°

Humidity: 70%

 Useful Information  

Local Time:

UTC -3

Electric Current:[8]:

Electric current in Chile is 220 Volts and 50 Hertz. Most American electronic devices are adaptable to the outlets, although notebooks or laptops usually come with an internal adapter.

Electrical adapters of 3 terminals are rarely used, however, converters with 2 terminals can be purchased at any business that sells electrical parts.

Taxes:

The IVA in Chile consists of a surcharge of 19% that is applied on a good or a service.

Tips:

Tips are optional in all services, however, 10% is recommended.

Airport tax:

For international commercial flights the airport tax is included in the cost of the airlines ticket.

Hours:

Stores: 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. year round. Most stores remain closed on holidays.

Banks: 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., Monday through Friday

Money exchange offices: 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., Monday through Friday

Offices: 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.

 

 

Important numbers

Local organizing committee:

·        Selba Balcazar: 9-355775

·        Patricio Lara: 8-9214398

International calls through the operator:              123

Helpline:                                                                007

Emergency:                                                           133

In the appendix you will find a list of telephone numbers of the Embassies and International Organizations accredited in Chile (Appendix 1), as well as a list of major airlines (Appendix 2), restaurants (Appendix 3), shopping centers (Appendix 4) and immigration requirements to enter into the Republic of Chile (Appendix 5).